Key Rate Duration, Definition, Formula & Example of Key Rate Duration

Key Rate Duration, Definition, Formula & Example of Key Rate Duration are explained in this article. You will find this informative.

Define key rate duration

Key Rate Duration, Definition, Formula & Example of Key Rate Duration
Key Rate Duration – Photo Source:

The key rate duration analyses the alternation in a bond’s price in correlation with the total percentage forgiven maturity date.

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A business agent should be very particular about the profit margin. If the margin is bending and has a parallel change, it is an indication that the duration is highly effective.

Conversely, if the key rate duration does not have a parallel change, it is an indication that when the profit margin alternates, the debt instrument portfolio will alternate.

In other words, Key rate duration is the degree how which the worth of a debt guarantees vicissitudes at a particular point in time with respect to the total profit.

One of the assumptions is that the other maturities are held constant, in such a business situation the key rate duration is the degree of understanding in the amount of the security’s price to a 1% alternation in profit for a particular maturity date.

The Formula for Key Rate Duration is stated below

Key Rate Duration formula


P- = a security’s price after a 1% reduction in profit

P+ = a security’s price after a 1% intensification in profit

P0 = the security’s original price

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Assuming that a bond is originally priced at $5,000, and with a 1% rise in profit will reflect a $4700 price value, and a 1% reduction will reflect a price at $5,040. Based on the formula above, the key rate duration for this bond would be:

KRD = ($ 5.0 4 0 − $ 4 7 00) / (2 × 1 % × $ 5, 0 0 0)

= $ 3 4 0 / $ 100 = 3.4

Where: KRD = Key rate duration of 3.4

Significance of the Key Rate Duration after calculation

The key rate duration after every calculation simply reveals the anticipated alternation in the worth ensuing from the profit alternation of a bond portfolio with a particular date of maturity provided the returns for all other maturities are held constant.

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In the U.S. Treasuries, there are over nine several bond maturities that an investor can use to examine the key duration based on each maturity stage.

Further illustrations of Key Rate Duration

Most times speculators find it incomprehensive to explain to even understand personal key rate duration as it is usually implausible for a unique opinion to move in an increasing or declining alternation on the treasury profit curve as other factors cannot remain constant.

Thus, it is more vital to view key rate durations using two securities, for example, assume bond O has a one-year duration with a key rate duration of 1.2 and a seven-year key rate duration of 1.5, and on the other hand, Bond P has a key rate durations of 1.6 and 0.5 for each maturity opinion, respectively.

It can be said that on the short-term end of the curve, bond O is half as delicate as bond P, while bond P is two-thirds as delicate to interest rate alternation in between the curve.

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Furthermore, another example that can aim for the understanding of key rate duration is a call option. For instance when a depositor or a bond saver storages a bond, it is often referred to as a Callable Bond or Redeemable bond.

The distinguishing feature of a redeemable bond is that it delivers the subject or the issuer of the bond has the legal right according to the stated agreement and lacks the duty to release the bond at his own will earlier than the date of maturity. This restriction shows that the redeemable bond is entrenched by the call option.

These bonds generally come with certain restrictions often called the call option. The call option plays a vital role in predicting any alternation in the worth of the bond which is closely related to the function of key rate duration which also projects the anticipated alternation in the worth of a bond specifically portfolio bonds.

The key rate duration is often termed a valuable metric due to the profit changes in the curve which is fairly parallel. It portrays that any alternation in the worth of bonds leads to a 1% alternation in the profit.

Conclusively, the key rate duration can be used in the verification of the value of a bond to show the direction of the alternation by one percentage point.

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The key rate duration is metrical in nature which can assist financial analysts to make projections on the anticipated profitability of bonds.

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